Language Attrition Research Archive
(LARA)
 

SECOND LANGUAGE ATTRITION


Order by: Year descending Year ascending Name ascending Name descending

Abrahamsson, Niclas and Hyltenstam, Kenneth. (2008) The robustness of aptitude effects in near-native second language acquisition. 'Studies in second Language Acquisition' 30:481-509.

Aertssen, J., M. Van de Berg, R. Buursen & T. Claasen (1985) Tweedetaalverlies: Verlies van het Engels bij Nederlandse Kinderen, Nijmegen: KUN, Mimeo.

Al-Hazemi, H (2000) Lexical attrition of some Arabic speakers of English as a foreign language: A study of word loss. TESL Journal. http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/Articles/Al-Hazemi-Attrition/

Albirini, A., Benmamoun, E., & Saadah, E. (2011) Grammatical features of Egyptian and Palestinian Arabic heritage speakers' oral production. 'Studies in Second Language Acquisition'.

Bahrick, Harry & E. Phelps (1987) Retention of Spanish vocabulary over eight years. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 13, 344-349.

Bahrick, Harry P. (1979) Maintenance of knowledge: Questions about memory we forgot to ask. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 108, 296-308.

Bahrick, Harry P. (1984a) Fifty years of second language attrition: Implications for programmatic research. MLJ 68(2), 105-118.

Bahrick, Harry P. (1984b) Associations and organization in cognitive psychology: A reply to Neisser, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 113(1), 36-37.

Bahrick, Harry P. (1984c) Semantic memory content in permastore: 50 years of memory for Spanish learned in school . Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113(1), 1-31.

Bahrick, Harry P., L.E. Bahrick, A.S. Bahrick & P.E. Bahrick (1993) Maintenance of foreign language vocabulary and the spacing effect. Psychological Science 4, 316-321.

Bardovi-Harlig, K. & Stringer, D. (2010) Variables in second language attrition: Advancing the state of the art. Studies in Second Language Acquisition. 32 (1): 1-45.

Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen and Stringer, David (2013) The lexicon in second language attrition: What happens when the cat's got your tongue? In J. Altarriba and L. Isurin (Eds.), Memory, Language, and Bilingualism: Theoretical and Applied Approaches, 291-308. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Benjamin J. Levy, Nathan D. Mc Veigh, Alejandra Marful and Michael C. Anderson. (2007) Inhibiting Your Native Language: the Role of Retrieval-Induced Forgetting During Second-Language Acquisition. University of Oregon and University of Salamanca, Salamance, Spain.

Berko-Gleason, Jean (1982) Insights from child language acquisition for second language loss. In Richard.D. Lambert & Barbara F. Freed (eds.). The loss of language skills, 13-23.

Berman, Ruth (1979) The re-emergence of a bilingual: A case study of a Hebrew-English speaking child. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 19, 157-180.

Berman, Ruth A. & Elite Olshtain (1983) Features of first language transfer in second language attrition. Applied Linguistics 4(3), 222-234.

Brown, Cheryl. & Ray Graham (1991) Second language vocabulary acquisition and attrition. Paper presented at TESOL ‘91 annual meeting. New York, March 27, 1991.

Bybee, J. (2008) Usage-based grammar and second language asquistion. In P. Robinson & N.C. Ellis(Eds). 'Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquistion' (216-33) New York: Routledge.

Carroll, Susanne E. (2001) 'Input and Evidence. The Raw Material of Second Language Acquisition'. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Carson, Joan Eisterhold & Phyllis A. Kuehn (1992) Evidence of Transfer and Loss in Developing Second Language Writers. Language Learning 42, 2, 157-182.

Clark, John L.D. & Eleanor H. Jorden (1984) A Study of Language Attrition in Former U.S. Students of Japanese and Implications for Design of Curriculum and Teaching Materials. Final Project Report. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.(ED 243 317). Accessed on 27.01.2009 at http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/34/76/e4.pdf

Clyne, Michael G. (1981) 'Second language attrition and first language reversion among elderly bilinguals in Australia', in M. Meid & K. Heller (eds.), Sprachkontakt als Ursache von Veränderungen der Sprach- und Bewußtseinsstruktur, Innsbruck: Institut fhür Sprachwissenschaft, Universität Innsbruck, 25-32.

Cohen, A D (2008) Attrition in the productive lexicon of two Portuguese third language speakers. Studies in second language acquisition, 11(02), 135-149.

Cohen, Andrew (1986) Forgetting Foreign Language Vocabulary. In. Weltens, Bert, Kees De Bot & Theo Van Els (eds.): Language attrition in progress. Dordrecht: Foris Publications, 143-145.

Cohen, Andrew D. (1974) The Culver City Spanish Immersion Program: How does summer recess affect Spanish speaking ability? Language Learning, 24(1), 55-68.

Cohen, Andrew D. (1975) Forgetting a second language. Language Learning 25, 127-138.

Cohen, Andrew D. (1986) Forgetting foreign language vocabulary. In Weltens, Bert, Kees DeBot & Theo Van Els (eds.) Language attrition in progress. (pp143-158). Dordrecht, Holland: Foris.

Cohen, Andrew D. (1989) Attrition in the productive lexicon of two Portuguese third language speakers. SSLA 11(2), 135-150.

Cohen, Andrew D. & Bert Weltens (eds.) (1989) Language attrition. SSLA 11(2).

de Bot Kees, Lowie, W. and Vespoor, M. (2007) A Dynamic Sysetems Theory Approach to Second Language Ascquisition. 'Bilingualism: language Cognition' 10(1),7-12.

de Bot, Kees (1989, October) Language attrition: competence loss or performance loss, 20. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Angewandte Linguistik, Göttingen: University of Göttingen (printed (1991), in B. Spillner (ed.), Sprache und Politik, Frankfurt - New York: Peter Lang, 63-65).

de Bot, Kees (1999) Forward. In Hansen (ed.). Second language attrition: Evidence from Japanes contexts, pp. vii-viii.

de Bot, Kees & Bert Weltens (1985) Taalverlies: Beschrijven versus verklaren. Handelingen van het 38e Nederlandse Filologencongres, 51-61.

de Bot, Kees & Bert Weltens (1991a) Regression, recapitulation, and language loss. In Herbert.W. Seliger & R.M. Vago (eds.), First language attrition, 31-52.

de Bot, Kees & Bert Weltens (1995) Foreign language attrition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 15, 151-164.

de Bot, Kees & Michael G. Clyne (1989) Language reversion revisited. SSLA 11(2), 167-177.

de Bot, Kees & Saskia Stoessel (1999, March) Finding residual lexical knowledge: The 'savings'-approach to testing vocabulary. Paper presented at the American Association of Applied Linguistics conference, Stamford, Connecticut.

de Bot, Kees & Saskia Stoessel (2000) In search of yesterday's words: Reactivating a long forgotten language. Applied Linguistics 21(3):364-384.

de Bot, Kees & Vanessa Martens (2001) Savings for French as a foreign language: Long-term effects and passive/active transfer. Paper presented at the American Association of Applied Linguistics conference. St. Louis, Missouri.

De Bot, Kees, Martens, Vanessa & Saskia Stoessel (2004) Finding residual lexical knowledge: The "Savings" approach to testing vocabulary, International Journal of Bilingualism, 8, 3, 373-382.

deBot, Kees (2001, April) Language attrition: Products, processes and perceptions. In Agnes Bolonyai and Ludmilla Dutkova-Cope (Chairs). Can spiders forget how to spin spider webs? Language attrition and some unresolved questions. Symposium conducted at the Third International Symposium on Bilingualism. Bristol, U.K.

DeKeyser, R. (2000) The Robustness of critical period effects in second language acquisition. 'Studies in Second Language Acquisition'. 22 499-533.

Dominguez, Laura. (2012) Understanding interfaces: second language acquisition and native language attrition of Spanish subject realization and word order variation. Amsterdam, NL, John Benjamins 335. (Language Acquistion and language Disorders)

Dugas, Larissa Godish (1999) Attrition of pronunciation accuracy among advanced American learners of French. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Indiana University.

Dugas, Larissa Godish. (2000, September) Attrition of pronunciation accuracy among advanced American learners of French. Paper presented at the Second Language Research Forum, Madison, Wisconsin.

Extra, Guus & Koen Jaspaert (1987, March) Language loss versus language acquisition. Symposium on Pidgin and Creole Languages, Duisburg, Germany.

Fakhri, A. (1989) Variation in the use of referential forms within the context of foreign language loss, in S. Gass et al. (eds.), Variation in second language acquisition, Vol.II. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 180-201.

Fotos, Sandy & Lynne Hansen (1996) Investigating spiritualization: Noticing, processing and the function of time empirical evidence for a cognitive model. http://bahai-library.org/conferences/fotos.hansen.html

Freed, Barbara F. & Richard D. Lambert (1980) Report on language attrition conference. SLANT X/2, 65-68.

Galbraith, N. (1981) A study of transfer in language loss. Some problems and considerations. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Utrecht, Utrecht.

Gardner, Robert C. & Lysynchuk, L.M. (1990) The role of aptitude, attitudes, motivation and language use in second-language acquisition and retention. Candian Journal of Behavioral Science (3), 254-270.

Gardner, Robert C., R.N. Lalonde & J. MacPherson (1985) Social factors in second language attrition. Language Learning 35(4), 519-540.

Gardner, Robert C., R.N. Lalonde, R. Moorcroft & F.T. Evers (1987) Second language attrition: The role of motivation and use. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 6(1), 29-47.

Geoghegan, B. (1950) The retention of certain secondary school subject matter over the period of summer vacation. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Fordham University.

Ginsberg, Ralph B. (1986) Issues in the analysis of language loss: Methodology of the language skills attrition project. In B. Weltens et al. (eds.), Language attrition in progress, 19-36.

Godsall-Myers, Jean E. (1981) The attrition of language skills in German classroom bilinguals - A case study, Dissertation Abstracts International, July 1982, 43/01:157-A.

Graham, C. Ray (1990) What is lost and why: A study of language attrition among fluent adult speakers of Spanish as a second language. Paper presented at Deseret Language and Linguistics Symposium, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 1990 .

Grendel, Marjon (1990, April) Attrition and reactivation of French lexical aspects, AILA - 9th World Congress of Applied Linguistics, Thessaloniki (in Conference Abstracts, Vol.1, 40).

Grendel, Marjon (1990) Verlies en herstel van Franse woordenkennis [Loss and recovery of French lexical knowledge], Gramma, Tijdschrift voor Taalkunde 14, 127-137.

Grendel, Marjon (1993) Verlies en herstel van lexicale kennis, PhD thesis, Nijmegen: KUN.

Grendel, Marjon, Bert Weltens & Kees De Bot (1993, August) Language attrition: Rise and fall of a research topic? Paper presented at AILA - 10th World Congress of Applied Linguistics, Amsterdam (in Conference Abstracts, 355) [printed as Language attrition: Rise and fall of a research topic. Toegepaste Taalwetenshap in Artikelen 46/47, 59-68].

Gunnewiek, M.S. (1989) Structural aspects of the loss of Portuguese among migrants. I.T.L. Review of Applied Linguistics, 83, 99-124.

Gurel, Ayse. (2002) Linguistic Characteristics of second language acquisition and first language attrition: Turkish overt verus null pronouns. Ph.D thesis, McGill University Montreal.

Hansen, L., Colver, A., Chong, W., Pereira, H., Robinson, J., Sawada., Miller, R.M (2012) The lost word: Vocabulary attrition in six mission languages. In L. Hansen (Ed.). Second Language Acquisition Abroad The LDS Missionary Experience. John Benjamins Publishing.

Hansen, L., Lam, K., Nufer, L. O., Rama, P., Schwaller, G., Miller, R. M. (2012) In the beginning was the word: Vocabulary learning in six mission languages. In L. Hansen (Ed.). Second Language Acquisition Abroad The LDS Missionary Experience. John Benjamins Publishing.

Hansen, Lynne (1980) Learning and forgetting a second language: The acquisition, loss and reacquisition of Hindi-Urdu negative structures by English-speaking children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,University of California, Berkeley. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42,193A.

Hansen, Lynne (1983) The acquisition and forgetting of Hindu-Urdu negation by English-speaking children. In Kathleen M Bailey, Michael H. Long & Sabrina Peck (eds.). Second language acquisition studies (pp. 91-103) Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Hansen, Lynne (1996, August) Fitting together the pieces: attrition curves in the longterm attrition of a second language. In Lynne Hansen (Chair). Language Attrition from Cross-disciplinary Perspectives. Symposium conducted at AILA - 11th World Congress of Applied Linguistics, Jyväskylä, Finland: University of Jyväskylä (in Conference Abstracts, 48).

Hansen, Lynne (1999, August) What we think we have learned about second language attrition. In Lynne Hansen & Dorit Kaufman (Chairs). Language Attrition: Retrospection and Future Directions. Symposium conducted at the AILA-12th World Congress of Applied Linguistics, Waseda University, Tokyo.

Hansen, Lynne (1999, December) Language regression in bilingualism: A twenty year restrospect on second language attrition research. Plenary talk given at the conference on ‘Bilingualism: Acquisition and Attrition’, Applied Linguistics Association of Korea, Seoul.

Hansen, Lynne (1999) Not a total loss: The attrition of Japanese negation over three decades. In Hansen (ed.). Second language attrition: Evidence from Japanese contexts, 142-153.

Hansen, Lynne (2000, September) Forgotten but not gone: Extending the savings paradigm in the recovery of lost L2 vocabulary and syntax. In Dorit Kaufman (Chair). Language attrition: Crosslinguistic interplay and sociolinguistic perspectives. Symposi ndumucted at the Second Language Research Forum, Madison, Wisconsin.

Hansen, Lynne (2001) Language attrition in contexts of Japanese bilingualism. In Mary Noguchi & Sandra Fotos (eds.). Studies in Japanese bilingualism. London: Multilingual Matters.

Hansen, Lynne (2001) Language attrition: The fate of the start. In Mary McGroarty (ed.). Annual Review of of Applied Linguistics, 21. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hansen, Lynne & Anita Reetz-Kurashige (1999) Investigating second language attrition: An introduction. In Hansen. Second language attrition in Japanese contexts, 3-20.

Hansen, Lynne & Ching-Fen Chantrill (1999) Literacy as a second language anchor: Evidence from L2 Japanese and L2 Chinese. In Peter Robinson (ed.). Representation and process: Proceedings of the 3rd Pacific Second Language Research Forum, Vol. 1 (pp. 279-286), Tokyo: PacSLRF'99, Aoyama University.

Hansen, Lynne & Jesse Newbold (1997, March) Literacy as an anchor for the spoken language: Evidence from adult attriters of L2. In Dorit Kaufman & Lynne Hansen. First and Second Language Attrition Insights from Production Data. Symposium conducted at the AAAL Annual Conference. Orlando, FL (in Conference Abstracts, 77). Published in Peter Robinson (ed.). (2001). JAMS volume. Tokyo: JALT.

Hansen, Lynne & Joseph Stokes (1997) The sounds and silence of hesitation: Pause phenomena in the acquisition and attrition of L2 Japanese. In Jonathan Leather & Allan James (eds.). New Sounds ‘97: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on the Acquisition of Second-Language Speech (pp. 118-124). Klagenfurt: University of Klagenfurt.

Hansen, Lynne & Justin Shewell (1999, December) The role of alphabetic literacy in second language retention: The case of Korean. Paper presented at the conference on 'Bilingualism: Acquisition and Attrition', Applied Linguistics Association of Korea, Seoul.

Hansen, Lynne & Yung-Lin Chen (2001) What counts in the acquisition and attrition of numeral classifiers? JALT Journal.

Hansen, Lynne (ed.) (1999) Second language attrition in Japanese contexts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hansen, Lynne, James Gardner & James Pollard (1998) The measurement of fluency in a second language: Evidence from the acquisition and attrition of Japanese. In Brad Visgatis (ed.). JALT'97: Trends & transitions, Proceedings of the JALT 1997 International Conference on Language Teaching and Learning. Tokyo: Japan Association for Language Teaching.

Hansen, Lynne, Yukako Umeda & Melanie McKinney (2002) Savings in the Relearning of Second Language Vocabulary: The Effects of Time and Proficiency. Language Learning 52,4,653–678.

Hansen, Lynne, Yukako Umeda & Melanie McKinney (2000, March) Forgotten but not gone: The use of the savings paradigm in the recovery of L2 Japanese and L2 Korean lexical knowledge. Paper presented at the AAAL conference, Vancouver, B.C.

Hansen, Lynne, Yukako Umeda & Melanie McKinney (2000, March) Hesitation and laughter in L2 Japanese attrition. In Lynne Hansen (Chair). The L2 speech of returnees: Maintenance and attrition back home. Symposium conducted at the Japanese Association of Language Teachers conference. Tokyo.

Hansen, Lynne, Yukako Umeda & Melanie McKinney (2002) Savings in the Relearning of Second Language Vocabulary: The Effects of Time and Proficiency. Language Learning 52,4,653–678

Hansen-Strain, Lynne (1990) The attrition of Japanese by English-speaking children: an interim report. Language Sciences 12(4):367-377.

Hansen-Strain, Lynne (1992) Language loss over a break in instruction: Negation in the L2 Japanese of American high school students, Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Second Language Research in Japan (pp.123-134). Niigata: International University of Japan.

Hansen-Strain, Lynne (1993) The attrition of Japanese negation by English-speaking adults. Paper presented at the AILA - 10th World Congress of Applied Linguistics, Amsterdam (in Conference Abstracts, 114).

Hansen-Strain, Lynne (1993) The study of language attrition: Korean and Japanese contexts. Paper presented at the 1st annual Korea-TESOL convention, Iri, Korea.

Hansen-Strain, Lynne (1994) Japanese perspectives on language maintenance and loss. Paper presented at the JACET - 33rd annual conferenc of the Japan Association of College English Teachers, Omiya, Japan.

Hayashi, Brenda (1999) Testing the regression hypothesis: The remains of the Japanese negation system in Micronesia. In Lynne Hansen (ed.). Second language attrition: Evidence from Japanese contexts, 154-168.

Hedgcock, John (1991a) Foreign language retention and attrition: a study of maintenance patterns among adult learners of Spanish. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles

Hedgcock, John (1991b) Foreign language retention and attrition: a study of regression models. Foreign Language Annals 24, 43-55.

Henzl, Vera M. (1977) On similarity between language acquisition and language loss. Second Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Boston, MA.

Hill, Jane H. (1989) Language attrition in progress - book review. Language in Society 18/4, 594-598.

Hirai, Seiko (2002) Longitudinal L2 Attrition: A Case Study of a Japanese-English Bilingual Child. Japan Journal of Multilingualism and Multiculturalism, 8, 2, 26-57.

Hirai, Seiko (1999) Language Transfer Between English and Japanese: A Case Study of a Simultaneous English/Japanese Bilingual.Japan Journal of Multilingualism and Multiculturalism, 5,1,57-79.

Hyltenstam, K. & Åke Viberg (1994) Progression and regression in language: sociocultural neuropsychological and linguistic perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hyltenstam, Kenneth, Abrahamsson Niclas (2003) Age de l'exposition initiale at niveau terminal chez les locuteurs quasi-natisfs du suedois L2. 'Acquisition et interaction en langue etrangere', 18, 99-12.

Ioup, Georgette (2000, September) Age differences in forgetting a language. In Dorit Kaufman (Chair). Language attrition: Crosslinguistic interplay and sociolinguistic perspectives. Symposium conducted at the Second Language Research Forum, Madison, Wisconsin.In Dorit Kaufman (Chair). Second Language Research Forum, Madison, Wisconsin.

Ishiguro, Toshiaki (1994) Two suggested threshold levels in L1 and L2 attrition processes. Studies in Humanities 12 [Tokyo: Kanagawa University].

Isurin, Ludmila (1996) Foreign language loss and re-acquisition in immigration. Poster Session, AILA - 11th World Congress of Applied Linguistics, Jyväskylä, Finland: University of Jyväskylä (in Conference Abstracts, 116).

Jaspaert, Koen & Sjaak Kroon (1987) The relationship between global language proficiency tests and language loss. In F. Beukema & P. Coopmans (eds.), Linguistics in the Netherlands 1987, Dordrecht: Foris Publications, 91-100.

Jordens, Peter, Kees De Bot & H. Trapman (1989) Linguistic aspects of regression in German case marking. SSLA 11(2), 179-204.

Jordens, Peter, Kees de Bot, C. Van Os & J. Schumans (1986) Regression in German case marking. In Weltens et al. (eds.). Language attrition in progress, 159-176.

Kennedy, L. (1932) The retention of certain Latin syntactical principles by first and second year Latin students after various time intervals. Journal of Educational Psychology 23, 132-146.

Koike, Ikuo (1990) How the Japanese children lose English as a second language. Paper presented at the AILA - 9th World Congress of Applied Linguistics, Thessaloniki (in Conference Abstracts as 'How the children lose English as a second language', Vol.1, 8).

Kolk, Hermanus H.J. (1974) Experiments in forgetting: type of stimulus and response-class in retroactive inhibition. Nijmegen: KUN.

Kuhberg, Heinz (1992) Longitudinal L2-attrition versus L2-acquisition in three Turkish children - Empirical findings. Second Language Research 8(2) 138-154.

Lambert, Richard D. (1987) Language attrition. Paper presented at the AILA - 8th World Congress of Applied Linguistics, Sydney: University of Sydney (printed (1989) in ITL Review of Applied Linguistics 83-84, 1-18).

Lambert, Richard D. (1989) Language attrition. I.T.L. Review of Applied Linguistics, 83, 1-18.

Lambert, Richard D. (1980) Language skill attrition. Conference initiates research in new subfield. The Linguistic Reporter 23(1) 1-3.

Lambert, Richard D. & Richard Tucker (1981) Newsletter: Language attrition project', Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1(1), 1-4.

Lambert, Richard D. & Sarah J. Moore (1984) Recent research on language skill attrition. ERIC/CLL News Bulletin 8, 1-8.

Lambert, Richard D. & Sarah J. Moore (1986) Problem areas in the study of language attrition. In Bert Weltens et al. (eds.), Language attrition in progress, 177-186.

Lambert, Richard. D. & Barbara F. Freed (eds.) (1982) The loss of language skills. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers.

Lardiere, D. (2006) 'Ultimate attainment in second language acquisition: A case study' Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Larsen-Freeman, Diane and Long, Michael H. (1991) 'An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research' London: Longman.

Lee, Dami (2000, November) L2 Retention and attrition of Korean/English Bilingual Children. In Lynne Hansen (Chair). The L2 speech of returnees: Maintenance and attrition back home. Symposium conducted at the Japanese Association of Language Teachers conference. Tokyo.

Lynne Hansen (2012) Second Language Acquistion Abroad. Brigham Young University, Hawaii.

Lynne Hansen, Junko Tsukayama & Ryan Ottley (2000, November) Hesitation and laughter in L2 Japanese attrition. In Lynne Hansen (Chair). The L2 speech of returnees: Maintenance and attrition back home. Symposium conducted at the Japanese Association of Language Teachers conference. Tokyo.

Madigan, Stephen A. & Linda McCabe, L. (1971) Perfect recall and total forgetting: A problem for models of short-term memory. JVLVB 10, 101-106.

Major, Roy C (2007) Identifying a foreign accent in an unfamiliar language. 'Studies in Second Language Acquisition'. 29(4):539-56.

Mauerman, P. (1985) Language attrition in French-speaking missionaries. Unpublished master’s thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

McCormack, Bede. (2001) The Maintenance and Loss of Reflexive Anaphors in L2 English. PhD dissertation, University of Durham, UK.

McLauchlan, Alastair (2007) The Negative L2 Climate: Understanding Attrition Among Second Language Students. Sasakawa Fellowship Fund for Japanese Language Education.

McMahon, N. (1946) The effects of summer vacation on retention of Latin vocabulary. Unpublished master's thesis, Fordham University, New York.

McMeniman, Marilyn M. (1981) Attrition in French at the secondary school level. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

Mehotcheva, T. (2010) After the fiesta is over: Foreign language attrition of Spanish in Dutch and German Erasmus students. Doctoral dissertation. University of Groningen. GRODIL series (86)/RECERCAT, Pompeu Fabra University.

Messelink, J. & H. Verkuylen (1984) Het verlies van woordenkennis van het Frans, doctoral project, Nijmegen: KUN.

Moncado, A.G. (1995) Language attrition and retention among non-native speaker EFL teachers. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook.

Montrul, Silvina (2001, April) Attrition in Spanish-English bilinguals in the tense/aspect domain: A view from universal grammar. Paper presented at the Third International Symposium on Bilingualism. Bristol, U.K.

Moorcroft, R. & Robert C. Gardner (1987) Linguistic factors in second-language loss. Language Learning 37(3) 327-340.

Murtagh, Lelia (2004) Retention of Irish Skills: A longitudinal study of a school-acquired second language, International Journal of Bilingualism, 8, 3, 279-302.

Murtagh, Lelia. (2003) Retention & attrition of Irish as a second language. PhD dissertation, University of Groningen.

Myres -scotton C and Jake, J. (2000) Four types of morphemes: evidence from aphasia, codeswitching, and second ;anguage ascquistion. 'Linguistics', 8(6),1053-1100.

Nagasawa, Sumiko (1999) The effects of initial achievement, learning experience and classroom instruction on adult attrition/retention of L2 Japanese. In Peter Robinson (ed.). Representation and process: Proceedings of the 3rd Pacific Second Language Research Forum, Vol. 1 (pp. 287-296), Tokyo: PacSLRF'99 Aoyama University.

Nakazawa, Y. (1989a) Kikoku shijo no gaikokugo shori kate to sono sokute hoho nituite [On the foreign language processing of returnees and its measurement]. In Kikoku shijo no gaikokugo hoji ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho [A survey on the foreign language retention of returnees] (Vol. 1), (pp. 820122).

Nakazawa, Y. (1989b) Kokoku shijo no nihon kokokugo no gaigokugo iji teedo o ketteesuru yooin ni tuiteno choosa [A report on the factor that determine foreign language retention of returnees after returning to Japan.] In Kikoku shijo no gaikokugo hoji ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho [A survey on the foreign language retention of returnees] (Vol. 1), (pp. 29_59). Tokyo: Kaigai shijo kyoiku shinko zaidan [Japan Overseas Student Education Foundation].

Nakazawa, Y., & Yoshitomi, A. (1990) Kikoku shijo no gaikokugo shori kate to sono sokute hoho ni tuite 2 [On the foregin language processing of returnees and its measurement 2]. In Kikoku shijo no gaikokugo hoji ni Kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho [A survey on the foreign language retention of returnees] (vol. 2), (pp. 42_52). Tokyo: Kaigai shijo kyoiku shinko zaidan [Japan Overseas Student Education Foundation].

Nakuma, C. (1997) A method for measuring the attrition of communicative competence: A pilot study with Spanish L3 subjects. Applied Psycholinguictics, 18, 219-235.

Neisser, Ulric (1984) Interpreting Harry Bahrick's discovery: What confers immunity against forgetting? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 113(3) 32-35.

Nelson, Thomas O. (1971) Savings and forgetting from long-term memory. JVLVB 10, 568-576.

Nelson, Thomas O. (1978) 'Detecting small amounts of information in memory: Savings for nonrecognized items', Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 4, 5, 453-468.

Nelson, Thomas O. (1985) Ebbinghaus's contribution to the measurement of retention: Savings during relearning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 11, 3, 472-479.

Nelson, Thomas O., D. Gerler & L. Narens (1984) Accuracy of feeling-of-knowing judgements for predicting perceptual identification and relearning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 113, 2, 282-300.

Obler, Lorraine K. (1982) Neurolinguistic aspects of language loss as they pertain to second language attrition. In Lambert & Freed (eds.), The loss of language skills, 60-79.

Olshtain, E. & M. Barzelay (1991) Lexical retrieval difficulties in adult language attrition. In H. Seliger and R. Vago (ed.) First language attrition. (pp 139-150). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Olshtain, Elite (1986) The attrition of English as a second language with speakers of Hebrew. In Bert Weltens, Kees de Bot and Theo van Els (eds). Language attrition in progress. (pp.187-204) Dordrecht, Holland: Foris.

Olshtain, Elite (1989) Is second language attrition the reversal of second language acquisition? SSLA, 11, 151-165.

Olshtain, Elite (1994) Metalinguistic accessibility as an indication of adult primary language attrition. Paper presented at the AAAL annual conference. Baltimore, Maryland.

Oxford, Rebecca L. (1982a) Research on language loss: A review with implications for foreign language teaching. Modern Language Journal 66(2), 160-169.

Oxford, Rebecca L. (1982b) Technical issues in designing and conducting research on language skill attrition. In Richard.D. Lambert & Barbara F. Freed (eds.), The loss of language skills, 119-137.

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